Study of normal functions of various body organs, experimental physiology, cellular functions and clinical applications. 


At the end of Phase-I & II, the student should be able to:

  1. Understand normal disposition, interrelationships, the functional and structural anatomy of various organs and their development. He should be able to locate structures of the body and mark the topography of living anatomy
  2. Understand and describe normal functions of all organs of the body and their functional interactions.
  3. Understand and describe various functional aspects at the bio-molecular level, including metabolic pathways and their regulatory mechanisms.
  4. Integrate these learnt subjects to the practice of clinical medicine

Course Contents

General Physiology
  • Principles of homeostasis
  • Structure of cell membrane
  • Transport mechanisms
  • Intercellular communications
  • Fluid compartments of the body.


– Composition and functions – RBC- formation, function, and anemia’s – WBC- formation, functions and Leukemia’s – Haemoglobin- synthesis and functions – Blood groups- basis of blood grouping, clinical importance, blood banking and transfusion – Haemostasis, anticoagulants

Muscle and nerve physiology

– Structure and functions of a neuron and neuralgia – Molecular basis of resting membrane and action potential – Transmission of nerve impulse – Structure and transmission across neuro-muscular junction – Neuro-muscular blocking agents – Types and structure of muscle fibre – Action potential in different muscle types – Molecular basis of muscle contraction – Muscular changes during exercise – Properties of excitable issue.

Renal system

– Structure and function of the nephron – Urine formation involves processes of filtration, tubular absorption, secretion, and concentration – Structure and function of a Juxtaglomerular apparatus – Role of renin-angiotensin system – Fluid and electrolyte balance and its regulation – Innervations of bladder, micturition, abnormalities of micturition – Artificial kidney, dialysis, and renal transplantation – Renal Function Test

Digestive system

– Basic structure of the Digestive system – functions of – Salivary secretion – Gastric secretion – Pancreatic secretion – Intestinal secretion – Bile – Gastro-intestinal hormones-source, regulation, and functions – Gastro-intestinal movements – Pathophysiology of peptic ulcer, Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, vomiting, diarrhoea, constipation


– Physiological actions and effect of altered secretion of Pituitary gland, Thyroid gland, Parathyroid gland, Adrenal gland, Pancreas and hypothalamus Estimation and assessment of Hormones

Reproductive system

– Functions of testis & ovary – Spermatogenesis & factors influencing it – Menstrual cycle-hormonal, uterine and ovarian changes – Physiological changes during pregnancy and lactation – Physiological basis for pubertal changes – Physiological effect of sex hormones – Contraceptive methods (male and female methods)

Cardiovascular system

– Properties of cardiac muscle – Conducting system of the heart – Haemodynamics of circulatory system – Regulation of heart rate and blood pressure, and cardiac output – Electrocardiogram-physiological basis and applications. – Regional circulation-coronary, cerebral, capillary, foetal and pulmonary circulation – Pathophysiology of shock, coronary artery disease, hypertension – Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation – Abnormal ECG

Respiratory system

– Functional anatomy – Mechanics of normal respiration – Regulation of respiration – Transport of respiratory gases – Lung function test-clinical significance – Principles of artificial respiration, oxygen therapy, acclimatization and decompression sickness. – Pathophysiology -hypoxia, cyanosis and asphyxia.

Central nervous system

– Organization of the nervous system – Functions and properties of synapse, reflex, receptors. – Functions of the cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum and limbic system. – Structure and function of the reticular activating system, autonomic nervous system – Mechanism of maintenance of tone, posture and  equilibrium- vestibular apparatus – Higher functions (Memory, Learning, Speech) – Pathophysiology of Parkinsonism, a section of the spinal cord. – EEG and Sleep – Pain and referred pain

Special senses

– Functional anatomy of the eye – Physiology of image formation, colour vision, refractive errors, Visual reflexes- pupillary and light reflex – Effect of the lesion for visual pathway – Pathophysiology of blindness – Functional anatomy ear – Mechanism of hearing – Pathophysiology of deafness – Perception of smell and taste sensation – Pathophysiology of altered smell and taste sensation – Auditory & visual evoked potential

Skin and body temperature regulation

Mechanism of temperature regulation Adaptation to altered temperature (heat and cold) Mechanism of fever, cold injuries and heat stroke.

Physiology of sports, exercise, yoga and meditation

Cardio-respiratory and metabolic adjustments Physiological effects of yoga and meditation


A medical student in Physiology, must be able to perform and interpret the following skills


RBC count WBC count Differential WBC count Eosinophil count Platelet count Clotting and bleeding time Blood grouping and cross matching Interpret peripheral smear – identify abnormality and anaemia Calculate various blood indices

Muscle and nerve physiology

– Properties of nerve and muscle to bedemonstrated by computer-based modules

Reproductive system

Pregnancy test

Cardiovascular system History taking

Examine peripheral arterial pulse Record arterial blood pressure using sphygmomanometer Record ECG, identify normal waves, intervals and pick-up abnormalities Locate the apex beat Auscultate the areas of the heart, appreciate heart sound, Pickup abnormal sounds Echocardiography

Respiratory system

Perform spirometry (computer spirometer, if available) and interpret the recording to appreciate restrictive and obstructive airway diseases. Locate the position of the trachea and appreciate its deviation in disease. Percuss lung fields to appreciate the change in a note in disease. Auscultate lung fields appreciate the normal breath sound and pickup adventitious sounds Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation

Nervous system

Examination of Sensory system (touch, pain, pressure and temperature) Examination of the motor system (nutrition, tone, power and coordination) Examination of superficial and deep reflexes. Examination of cranial nerves (sensory and motor division) Examination of the autonomic nervous system EEG, EMG and nerve conduction Studies

Special senses

The acuity of vision (near and distant vision) Colour vision Field of vision Tests for hearing Test for smell and taste Principle of ophthalmoscopy Optometry Audiometry

Body temperature and metabolism

Recording body temperature in a different location

Teaching & Learning Methods

  • Structured interactive sessions
  • Small group discussion
  • Focused group discussion (FGD)
  • Practical, including demonstrations
  • Problem-based exercises
  • Skill labs
  • Video clips
  • Written case scenario
  • Self-learning tools
  • Interactive learning
  • e-modules