The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate students in Otorhinolaryngology is that the undergraduate students have ac-quired adequate knowledge and skills for optimally dealing with common disorders and emergencies and principles of rehabilita-tion of the impaired hearing.


2.1. Knowledge
At the end of the course, the student should be able to:
2.1.1. Describe the basic pathophysiology of common ENT diseases and emergencies.
2.1.2. Adopt the rational use of commonly used drugs, keeping in mind their adverse reactions.
2.1.3. Suggest common investigative procedures and their interpretation.

2.2. Skills
At the end of the course, the student should be able to:
2.2.1. Examine and diagnose common ENT problems including the pre-malignant and
malignant disorders of the head and neck.
2.2.2. Manage ENT problems at the first level of care and be able to refer whenever necessary
2.2.3. Assist/carry out minor surgical procedures like ear syringing, ear dressings, nasal
packing, etc.
2.2.4. Assist in certain procedures such as tracheostomy, endo-scopies, and removal of
foreign bodies.

2.3. Integration
The undergraduate training in ENT will provide an integrated approach toward other
disciplines especially neurosciences, ophthalmology and general surgery


At the end of the course, the student will be able to:
1. Diagnose and manage the common ENT diseases and emergencies.
2. Adopt the rational use of commonly used drugs, keeping in mind their adverse reactions.
3. Suggest common investigative procedures and interpret their results.


4.1. Theory
4.1.1. Ear
Bacterial flora, specific antibiotic therapy of upper respiratory infection – Surgical anatomy: external, middle and inner ear – Physi-ology of hearing and vestibular function – Examination of the Ear: Tuning fork tests; hearing assessment in children; broad outline; referred pain in the ear – Congenital conditions of the ear – Dis-eases of the  external ear: perichondritis; otitis externa; cerumen; foreign body – Diseases of the middle ear: acute and chronic suppurative otitis media; Otosclerosis; Cholesteatoma – Audiometry: pure tone; functional examination of inner ear, vestibule, caloric test, positional nystagmus test – Deaf mutism – Meniere’s disease – Complications of otitis media: Mastoiditis (acute and chronic) -lateral thrombosis; labyrinthitis; otogenic brain abscess; mastoidectomy; Principles – Deafness: types and causes
– Facial Nerve and its Disorders – Tumours of External Ear – Tumours of Middle Ear Cleft – Acoustic Neuroma – Rehabilitation of the Hearing impaired- Assessment of Vestibular Functions – Disorders of Vestibular System – Tinnitus

4.1.2. Nose and Paranasal Sinuses

Surgical anatomy and physiology of the nose and paranasal sinuses – Symptoms of nasal diseases – Methods of examination of the nose and paranasal sinuses – Congenital Anomalies of Nose -Diseases of the nasal septum: deviation of nasal septum and principles of management; polyp of the septum – Epistaxis and foreign bodies in the nose – Nasal allergy: nasal polyposis – Inflammation of the nose: furunculosis of the vestibule of the nose, acute rhinitis – In inflammatory diseases of paranasal sinuses: acute and chronic maxillary sinusitis, frontal sinusitis – Atrophic rhinitis, rhinosporidiosis, rhinoscleroma – Outline of management of benign and malignant tumors or nose and paranasal sinuses 

4.1.3. Pharynx

Anatomy of the pharynx: methods of examination – Diseases of the pharynx: adenoids ; acute and chronic pharyngitis; diphtheric pharyngitis; acute follicular tonsillitis and differential diagnosis; chronic tonsillitis; tonsillectomy; indication; peritonsillar abscess; retropharyngeal abscess – Broad outline of management of juvenile angiofibroma, and malignant tumors of oropharynx – Tumours of Nasopharynx – Acute and Chronic Pharyngitis – Head and Neck Space Infections – Tumours of Hypopharynx and Pharyngeal Pouch 

4.1.4. Larynx
Anatomy and functions of the larynx and methods of examination – Hoarseness of voice; stridor; differential diagnosis of respiratory obstruction and its management – Inflammatory lesions of the larynx: acute laryngitis – Vocal cord nodules; laryngeal diphtheria; tuberculosis of the larynx and differential diagnosis – Benign and malignant tumors of larynx: classification – Be able to use auroscope, nasal speculum, tongue depressor; tuning fork and head mirror – Conduct CPR (Cardiopulmonary resuscitation) and first aid in newborns, children and adults including endotracheal intubation – Maintain airway (endotracheal intubation/tracheostomy / cricothyroidotomy)- Perform syringing of ear – Do nasal packing for epistaxis – Congenital Lesions of Larynx and Stridor – Laryn-gotracheal Trauma; Acute and Chronic Inflammations of Larynx -Laryngeal Paralysis – Voice and speech Disorders – Tracheostomy and Other Procedures for Airway Management – Foreign Bodies of Air Passages

4.1.5. Diseases of Oesophagus

Anatomy and Physiology of Oesophagus – Disorders of Oe-sophagus – Dysphagia -Foreign  Bodies of Food Passage 4.1.6. Recent Advances
Sleep Apnoea Syndrome – Skull base Surgery – Laser Surgery- Cryo Surgery – Radiology in ENT – Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer – Chemotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer – Cleft Lip and Palate – Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS ) in ENT – Neck Masses

4.2. Practical
4.2.1. Clinical Methods in ENT
4.2.2. Operative Surgery
Myringotomy – Mastoid Surgery – Radical Mastoidectomy -Modified Radical Mastoidectomy – Myringoplasty – Proof Puncture (Syn. Antral Irrigation) – Intranasal Inferior Meatal Antrostomy – Caidwel1-Luc Operation – Submucous Resection of Nasal Septum (SMR Operation) – Septoplasty – Diagnostic Nasal Endoscopy – Endoscopic Sinus Surgery – Direct Laryngoscopy -Bronchoscopy – Oeosphagoscopy – Tonsillectomy – Adenoidectomy

4.2.3. Miscellaneous
Instruments in ENT – Syndromes in ENT – Implantation otology- Radiofrequency surgery TN ENT – Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in EN