Deals with diseases, manifestations and treatment of muscular skeletal diseases.


At the end of the training, the student should be able to : Describe the aetiology, pathophysiology, principles of diagnosis and management of common orthopaedic problems, including emergencies

Course Contents

  • General principles in diagnosis, first aid and treatment methods of closed and open fractures, open reduction including principles of internal fixation and external fixation, their complications, and Preserving amputated parts before transfer.
  • General principles of diagnosis and management of non-unions and delayed unions.
  1. Fracture clavicle.
  2. Anterior dislocation of the shoulder.
  3. Fracture proximal end, shaft, supracondylar, and internal condylar humerus.
  4. Posterior dislocation of the elbow.
  5. Fracture shaft of radius and ulna.
  6. Fracture of the distal radius.
  7. Traumatic dislocation of the hip.
  8. Fracture of femur neck, trochanter and shaft.
  9. Fracture patella.
  10. Fracture shaft tibia and fibula.
  11. Haemarthrosis, traumatic synovitis.
  12. Injury to muscles and ligaments (shoulder arc syndrome, tennis elbow, ankle sprain).
  13. General principles of management of hand injuries.
  14. Peripheral nerve injuries.
  15. Spinal injuries.
  16. Fracture of olecranon.
  17. Monteggia fracture dislocation.
  18. Polytrauma.
  19. Complications of fracture: Fat embolism, Ischaemic contracture, myositis ossificans, osteodystrophy.
III. INFECTIONS OF BONES AND JOINTS Diagnosis and Principles of Management
  1. Osteomyelitis: pyogenic, tubercular, fungal (Madurafoot), syphilitic and parasitic infection of the bone.
  2. Arthritis: septic and tubercular.
  3. Tuberculosis of the spine.
  4. Leprosy – principles of corrective surgery.
IV. TUMOURS Diagnosis and Principles of Management
  1. Benign lesions: Multiple exostoses, Enchondroma, Osteoid osteoma, Simple bone cyst. Osteochondroma.
  2. Malignant lesions: Osteosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, Giant cell tumour, Chondrosarcoma and Secondary deposits.
V. DEGENERATIVE DISEASES Diagnosis and Principles of Management
  1. Osteoarthritis.
  2. Spondylosis.
  3. Degenerative disc diseases.
VI. CONGENITAL ANOMALIES Diagnosis and Principles of Management
  1. Congenital dislocation hip.
  2. Congenital talipes equinovarus.
  3. Pes Planus.
VII. BONE DYSPLASIA Diagnosis and Principles of Management
  1. Osteogenesis imperfect.
  2. Achondroplasia.
VIII. NEURO-MUSCULAR DISORDERS Diagnosis and Principles of Management
  1. Post-polio residual Paralysis.
  2. Cerebral palsy.
IX. OSTEOCHONDROSES Diagnosis and Principles of Management
  1. Perthe’s disease
  1. Scoliosis – diagnosis and referral.
  2. GenuVarum and Valgum -diagnosis.
  • Physiatric evaluation of common neurological diseases.
  • Physiatric evaluation of common orthopaedic conditions.
  • Principles of Exercise therapy, Electrotherapy and Occupational therapy.
  • Principles of Orthotics and Prosthetics. Principles of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation.
  • Obtain a proper relevant history, and perform a humane and thorough clinical examination in adults and children, including neonates.
  • Arrive at a logical working diagnosis after the examination.’
  • Plan and institute a line of treatment which is need-based, cost-effective and appropriate for common ailments.
  • Recognise situations which call for urgent or early treatment at secondary and tertiary centres and make a prompt referral of such patients after giving first aid or emergency treatment.
  • Be able to do surface marking of common superficial arteries, veins, nerves and viscera.
  • Interpret skiagrams of common fractures and dislocations.
  • Apply skin traction.
  • Apply figure of 8 bandages for fracture clavicle.
  • Apply POP slabs/casts and splints.
  • Transport victims of accidents, including those with spinal injury safely.
  • Reduce Colle’s fracture.
  • Reduce shoulder dislocation.
  • Reduce tempero-mandibular joint dislocation.
  • Perform nerve blocks like infiltration, digital,pudendal, paracervical and field block.