About Microbiology

study microbes, viruses, fungi, etc., that cause diseases in humans. It also enlightens on the evidence-based drug treatment of microbial diseases.


The broad goal of teaching undergraduate students in Microbiology is to provide an understanding of the natural history of infectious diseases in order to deal with the aetiology, Pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, control and prevention of infections in the community.

Course Contents

At the end of the course, the student will be able to:

·         State the infective microorganisms of the human body and describe the host-parasite relationship.

·         List the pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi and describe the pathogenesis of the diseases produced by them.

·         State or indicate the modes of transmission of pathogenic and opportunistic Organisms and their sources, including insect vectors responsible for the transmission of infection.

Describe the mechanisms of immunity to infections.

·         Acquire knowledge of suitable antimicrobial agents for the treatment of infections and the scope of immune therapy and different vaccines available to prevent communicable diseases.

·         Apply disinfection and sterilisation methods to control and prevent hospital and community-acquired infections.

·         Recommended laboratory investigations regarding bacteriological examination of food, water, milk and air.




· History and milestone in Microbiology Scope of Medical Microbiology Microscopy Staining of bacteria Bacterial morphology

· Nutrition and growth of bacteria

· Culture media and cultivation of bacteria

· Identification of bacteria and bacterial classification

· Bacterial genetics

· Sterilisation & Disinfection

· Microbial control

· Normal Microbial flora

· Microbial Pathogenicity and immunity


· Host response (immunity)

· Structures and functions of the Immune system

· Cells of the immune system

· Immune response / immunity

· Antigen

· Antibody

· The complement system

· Antigen-antibody reactions

· Hypersensitivity

· Autoimmunity

· Histology compatibility complex

· Transplantation immunity

· Tumour immunity

· Immunodeficiency diseases

· Immuno haematology

· Immunoprophylaxis against infectious diseases



· Staphylococcus

· Streptococcus

· Neisseria

· Corynebacteria

· Bacillus

· Clostridium

· Nonsporing anaerobes

· Mycobacteria

· Actinomycetes and Nocardia

· Coliform Bacteria -Escherichia coli & klebsiella

· Proteus

· Salmonella

· Shigella

· Yersinia

· Pasteurella & Grancisella

· Hemophilus

· Bordetella

· Brucella

· V.Cholerae

· Pseudomonas

· Spirochetes

· Rickettsiae

· Chlamydia

· Mycoplasma

· Miscellaneous bacteria



• Introduction

• Classification

• General Principles of diagnosing parasites, infestations and treatment of parasitic infection.

• Protozoology

• Rhizopoda – Pathogenic and non-pathogenic amoebae

• Mastigophora – Intestinal, blood and tissue Mastigophora

• Sporozoa-Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Isospora

• Ciliate – Balantidium coli

• Protozoan of uncertain classification.

• 5) helminthology – Platyhelminths – Cestodes and Trematodes Nemathelminths -Nematodes


• Morphology of viruses

• Replication of viruses

• Cultivation of viruses

• Classification of viruses

• Assay of viruses

• Identification of viruses and Lab Diagnosis

• Genetics of viruses

• Pathogenesis and Host response to viral infections

• Antiviral agents

• Bacteriophage


• Pox viruses

• Adeno

• Herpes

• Popova

• Parvo

• RNA Viruses

• Picorna

• Orthomyxo

• Paramyxo

• Rota Viruses 10.Rhabdo Viruses

• Hepatitis Viruses

• Arbo Viruses

• Retro Viruses

• Slow Viruses

• Oncogenic Viruses

• Miscellaneous Viruses


• Economic importance and harmful effects of fungi – Mycotoxins

• Classifications of fungi

• Pathogenesis and Lab diagnosis of mycotic infections.


• Superficial mycosis

• Cutaneous mycoses

• Subcutaneous mycoses

• Opportunistic mycosis and common lab contaminants

• Antifungal agents


• Collection, transport and disposal of specimens

• Organ-specific infections

• Central nervous system infections

• Respiratory infections – Upper/ Lower

• Urinary tract infections

• Gastrointestinal infections – acute / chronic

• Infections of bones and joints

• Genital tract infections and congenital infections.

• Infections of the Eye, ear and skin

• Infection of CVS

• Systemic infections / Syndromes – PUO, Septicemias

• Zoonotic infections

• Environmental sanitation tests (food, water, milk and air)

• Hospital infections (Prevention and control)

• Basic molecular biology in relation to diagnosis of infectious diseases.


• Staining – Smear preparation

• Grams stain

• Special Stains – Acid fast staining, Albert, Ponders, Spore, and Capsule staining.

• Demonstration of cultural media

• Demonstration of sterilisation techniques

• Demonstration of bacterial motility – Hanging drop / other methods

• Applied Exercises

• Systematic – Identification of the pathogen from the given clinical material based on Staining property, cultural characters, and biochemical and serological tests.

• Immunology – Interpretation of the given Immunological test. Agglutination -slide, tube and Passive agglutination.

• Precipitation-VDRL

• Gel diffusion


• Mycology – Identify the given fungus by cultural morphology and wet mount preparation/staining.

• Virology-ELISA

• Haemagglutination and haemagglutination inhibition

• Parasitology – Stool examination for ova and cyst Saline and iodine preparation Direct and concentration techniques.

• Blood smear for the malarial parasite, Microfilaria and other parasites.

Identification and interpretation of the parasites (Adult and larval forms).


At the end of course, the student will be able to

• Operate and use the light compound microscope.

• Employ aseptic and sterile precautions while performing simple invasive procedures such as venepuncture.

• Collect and transport appropriate clinical materials with necessary precautions for the laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases.

• To perform common laboratory techniques ( as given below) to directly demonstrate microorganisms from clinical materials and interpret their findings. These should include:

• Wet preparation for Trichomonas vaginalis

• KOH preparation for the identification of fungal elements.

• Saline and iodine preparations and concentration methods for demonstration of trophozoites, Ova or cysts in stool samples.

• Prepare and stain peripheral blood for screening for malarial parasites and microfilariae.

• Prepare a smear and perform Gram stain on body fluids, urine and pus specimens.

• Prepare a smear and perform Ziehl – Neelsen stain to demonstrate mycobacteria, especially from sputum.

• Perform and interpret cold staining techniques on skin smear for demonstration of M.leprae.

• Interpret results of microbiological tests, including antimicrobial testing for the diagnosis of common infectious diseases.

• To perform and interpret a skin test.

• Perform simple standard rapid tests for diagnosis of infectious diseases.

• Organise the safe handling and disposal of infectious waste.

Teaching & Learning methods Structured interactive sessions, Small group discussion, Roleplay, Practical including demonstrations, Problem based exercises, Video clips, Written case scenarios, Self learning tools, Interactive learning and e-modules