Study of the general anatomy of structures and organ systems of the human body


The broad goal of teaching undergraduate students Anatomy is to provide comprehensive knowledge of the gross and microscopic structure and development of the human body to provide a basis for understanding the clinical correlation of organs or structures involved and the anatomical basis for the disease presentations.


At the end of the course, the student shall be able to

  • Comprehend the normal disposition, clinically relevant interrelationships, and functional and cross-sectional anatomy of the various structures in the body.
  • Identify the microscopic structure, correlate the elementary ultrastructure of various organs and tissues, and correlate the structure with the functions as a prerequisite for understanding the altered state in various disease processes.
  • Comprehend the central nervous system’s basic structure and connections to analyze the organs and systems’ integrative and regulative functions. He / She shall be able to locate the site of gross lesions according to the deficits encountered.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the organs and systems’ basic principles and sequential development, and recognize the critical stages of development and the effects of common teratogens. He / She shall be able to explain the developmental basis of the major variations and abnormalities.

Course Contents

General Physiology

  • Principles of homeostasis
  • Structure of cell membrane
  • Transport mechanisms
  • Intercellular communications
  • Fluid compartments of the body.


  • Composition and functions
  • RBC- formation, function and anemia’s
  • WBC- formation, functions and Leukemia
  • Hemoglobin- synthesis and functions
  • Blood groups- basis of blood grouping, clinical importance, blood banking and transfusion
  • Haemostasis, anticoagulants

Muscle and nerve physiology

  • Structure and functions of a neuron and neuralgia
  • Molecular basis of resting membrane and action potential
  • Transmission of nerve impulse
  • Structure and transmission across neuro-muscular junction
  • Neuro-muscular blocking agents
  • Types and structure of muscle fiber
  • Action potential in different muscle types
  • Molecular basis of muscle contraction
  • Muscular changes during exercise
  • Properties of excitable issue.

Renal system

  • Structure and function of the nephron
  • Urine formation involves processes of filtration, tubular absorption, secretion and concentration
  • Structure and function of a Juxtaglomerular apparatus
  • Role of renin-angiotensin system
  • Fluid and electrolyte balance and its regulation
  • Innervations of bladder, micturition, abnormalities of micturition
  • Artificial kidney, dialysis and renal transplantation
  • Renal Function Test

Digestive system

  • Basic structure of the Digestive system
  • Salivary secretion
  • Gastric secretion
  • Pancreatic secretion
  • Intestinal secretion
  • Bile
  • Gastro-intestinal hormones-source, regulation and functions
  • Gastro-intestinal movements
  • Pathophysiology of peptic ulcer, Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation


  • Physiological actions and effect of altered secretion of Pituitary gland, Thyroid gland, Parathyroid gland, Adrenal gland, Pancreas and hypothalamus
  • Estimation and assessment of Hormones
  • Reproductive system
  • Functions of testis & ovary
  • Spermatogenesis & factors influencing it
  • Menstrual cycle-hormonal, uterine and ovarian changes
  • Physiological changes during pregnancy and lactation
  • Physiological basis for pubertal changes
  • Physiological effect of sex hormones
  • Contraceptive methods (male and female methods)

Cardiovascular system

  • Properties of cardiac muscle
  • Conducting system of the heart
  • Haemodynamics of circulatory system
  • Regulation of heart rate and blood pressure, and cardiac output
  • Electrocardiogram-physiological basis and applications.
  • Regional circulation-coronary, cerebral, capillary, foetal and pulmonary circulation
  • Pathophysiology of shock, coronary artery disease, hypertension
  • Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation
  • Abnormal ECG

Respiratory system

  • Functional anatomy
  • Mechanics of normal respiration
  • Regulation of respiration
  • Transport of respiratory gases
  • Lung function test-clinical significance
  • Principles of artificial respiration, oxygen therapy, acclimatization and decompression sickness.
  • Pathophysiology -hypoxia, cyanosis and asphyxia.
  • Central nervous system
  • Organisation of the nervous system
  • Functions and properties of synapse, reflex, receptors.
  • Functions of the cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum and
  • limbic system.
  • Structure and function of the reticular activating system, autonomic nervous
  • system
  • Mechanism of maintenance of tone, posture and equilibrium-
  • vestibular apparatus
  • Higher functions (Memory, Learning, Speech)
  • Pathophysiology of Parkinsonism, a section of the spinal cord.
  • EEG and Sleep
  • Pain and referred pain

Special senses

  • Functional anatomy of the eye
  • Physiology of image formation, color vision, refractive errors, Visual reflexes-
  • pupillary and light reflex
  • Effect of the lesion on visual pathway
  • Pathophysiology of blindness
  • Functional anatomy ear
  • Mechanism of hearing
  • Pathophysiology of deafness
  • Perception of smell and taste sensation
  • Pathophysiology of altered smell and taste sensation
  • Auditory & visual evoked potential
  • Skin and body temperature regulation
  • Mechanism of temperature regulation
  • Adaptation to altered temperature (heat and cold)
  • Mechanism of fever, cold injuries and heat stroke.
  • Physiology of sports, exercise, yoga and meditation,
  • Cardio-respiratory and metabolic adjustments
  • Physiological effects of yoga and meditation


At the end of the course, the student shall be able to:
  • Identify and locate all body structures and mark the topography of the living anatomy.
  • Identify the organs and tissues under the microscope.
  • Understand the principles of karyotyping and identify gross congenital anomalies.
  • Understand the principles of newer imaging techniques like Ultrasound, Computerised Tomography Scans, and Interpretation of Plain and contrast X-rays.
  • Understand the clinical basis of some common clinical procedures, i.e. intramuscular and intravenous injection, lumbar puncture, kidney biopsy, etc.

Teaching & Learning Methods

  • Lectures – not more than 1/3rd of the total teaching hours.
  • e-mode learning of some of the topics.
  • Small group teaching-such as:
  • a) Demonstrations.
  • b) Tutorials.
  • c) Seminars.
  • d) Problem-Based Learning.
  • Dissection / Protected parts demonstrations / Instructions on mannequins.
  • Skills Lab with CDs of various stages of dissection.
  • Histology Lab.
  • Surface marking.
  • Imaging Anatomy Lab.
  • Visit the museum.
  • Preparation of scientific article.
  • Preparation of gross anatomy practical drawing book
  • Preparation of histology practical drawing book.